The first compartment contained the projectile or projectiles, either a single round ball or a large round ball plus three buckshot in the case of a buck and ball load. Cartridge, in weaponry, unit of small-arms ammunition, composed of a metal (usually brass) case, a propellant charge, a projectile or bullet, and a primer.The first cartridges, appearing in the second half of the 16th century, consisted merely of charges of powder wrapped in paper… For example, the cartridge must be sturdy enough to withstand the handling it can be expected to receive. Hand rolled on 1/2" (.490") dowel rod out of blank newsprint, crimped in the end NO GLUE NO STAPLES, 4 1/2" - 5" long. cartridge and what ones had a lead ball or bullet in them. Oxford University Press, 1981, p.88, "Making and Using Combustible Paper Pistol Cartridges", "Competition Or Circumvention?The Case Of Rollin White and Smith & Wesson Versus Three Unusual and Unique Revolvers", How Cartridge Paper almost killed King George, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Paper_cartridge&oldid=995759007, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Hold the musket level, place at half cock, and open the flash pan, Bite open a cartridge, pour a small quantity of powder into the pan, and close it, Hold the musket vertically, and pour the remaining powder down the barrel, Ram the ball and remaining paper down the barrel with the ramrod, A short tube of stiff paper, which provides the strength for the cartridge, A longer tube of thin paper, pushed inwards at one end, which serves to separate the powder from the bullet, A long tube of thin paper, which holds the bullet at one end, and the stiffened powder container at the other, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 19:12. When I’m ready to load the revolver, I put the hammer on half-cock, drop the cartridge into a chamber, rotate the cylinder until the ball is under the ram, ram the ball down into the chamber, then throw away the paper tail after I is cut off. Sharps Paper Cartridge - lenght 1.125 - pk of 250. We’ve seen movies or TV where Davey Crockett pours black powder straight down the muzzle of his weapon using a powder horn. ... Crumple up the paper and insert the ball and paper into the muzzle of the musket. The paper cartridge was introduced after about 1650 - Source Jeremy Black, European Warfare 1660-1815 (Routledge 1994) page 39. musket, with reference to the types used in New Zealand. These cartridges consisted of a paper cylinder or cone containing the bullet, gunpowder, and in some cases, a primer or a lubricating and anti-fouling agent. Paper Tubes, For rolling your own cartridges. $16.25. were reported where a live round got mixed up with the blank cartridge. The bullet end was then inserted up to the level of the thick paper tube, which was then torn off and discarded. The standard procedure for loading a musket or rifled musket involved biting open the cartridge; this caused problems for those with strict dietary restrictions. and had attempted to kill the monarch. Duelist1954 shoots his Pedersoli Brown Bess Musket with Paper Cartridges. I've casted up a pile of .730 musket balls from a Jeff Tanner mold and have some FFFG and FFG. wedge-like shape; Ethan Yazel. Numerous accidents This Sharps features a 30" Round Blued Barrel attached to a one-piece American Walnut Hand Oil Finished stock with 3-Metal Bands. Tie the end of the cartridge. The following describes the construction of a cartridge for a British Enfield musket, from the inside out: The bullet end of the cartridge was crimped shut, and the powder end was filled and folded closed. With a grooved projectile, lubrication is available directly, often negating the need for further lubricated wads behind the projectile. Hemp Webbing Musket Sling - The Continental Army had chronic supply problems with items made of leather, such as cartridge boxes, shoes, and shoulder carriages. Paper shotshells consist of a coiled paper tube, placed in a brass base, with the web of the case made of compressed paper pulp. Conditions of Use. Instructions for rolling your own blank cartridges for musket salutes by Compatriot Bradley Jarard What you’ll need: Blank newsprint, can be bought in large booklet/sheets from Plaza Art. 1775 cartridge box with some two cartridges. Sharps Paper Cartridge -lenght 0.875 - pk of 250. Sep 29, 2020 - Explore Michael's board "17th & 18th c. Cannonballs, Grenades & Paper Cartridges", followed by 306 people on Pinterest. The actual tube size is approximately .50 caliber, but will hold sufficient powder for any size load. The two guns were similar enough, that both sides could make use of ammunition captured from the enemy without any problems. A typical flintlock cartridge consisted of a paper tube, tied off in three places to form two compartments. wanting to have a little more flare than the rest of the army, the Guards .58 CALIBER RIFLE MUSKET CARTRIDGE. To load the rifle, the powder end was opened up by unfolding or tearing, and the powder was poured down the barrel. The ordnance Cartridge, in weaponry, unit of small-arms ammunition, composed of a metal (usually brass) case, a propellant charge, a projectile or bullet, and a primer.The first cartridges, appearing in the second half of the 16th century, consisted merely of charges of powder wrapped in paper… In today's post, we will study more advances in paper cartridge technology around the time that percussion caps and revolvers started becoming popular. Pre-rolled paper tubes for .58 cal muskets. … Since we were discussing cartridge rim types in our recent series of posts, your humble editor decided to go back in time to the first cartridges.We had already discussed paper cartridges some time back when this blog first started, but it might be nice to revisit that topic in detail. The first thing you do is to take a paper cartridge that contains a round ball wrapped in paper, black powder and bullet lube. The term later included rifles that directly replaced, and were of the same design overall as, a particular model of smoothbore musket. Making a musket charge was a simple process: 1. You can today make a cartridge by wrapping a piece of paper around dowel the same width as a bullet. Use them on the line or anytime you need to load up some quick rounds. musket cartridge. was decided that blank musket rounds would be made of the same dark blue [12][13], The fragility of the breechloading needle gun was a primary reason that only a few militaries adopted the system; in the well trained Prussian army, this was handled by having each soldier carry several spare needles. Numerous accidents Total Downloads 8,260. Insert a lead ball into the barrel. This eliminated the operation of measuring the powder during loading. Early Cartridge Technologies: Paper Cartridges - III In our last post , we saw the advances in paper cartridge technology to handle expanding bullets. [2][12], Paper shotshells, consisting of a paper body with a brass base and rim, have continued to be made and used many years after their general replacement with plastic shotshells. Any unauthorized use of material contained here is strictly The importance of paper cartridges can be seen by the existence of cartridge paper, a paper specially produced for the production of paper cartridges. Report. To this point, the only thought of While lacking pinpoint accuracy, effective harassing fire at an enemy some distance away became possible with units of disciplined riflemen firing in alternating volleys aimed at a common target. Learn More » But what colours for each? otherwise noted, all field day. Different cartridge forming dowels. had been making blue cartridges prior to the order for blanks only to be Until the late 1790s all musket cartridges were made from rolled brownish-white paper. Of necessity this is only a survey of the most important and common small arms and ammunition. Some commercially produced cartridges, such as those by Hayes of England, were also equipped with a small cloth tear tab at the front to assist in the removal of the protective outer layer prior to loading the cartridge. Many examples were tapered, into a cone, being wider at the bullet than at the rear. In this video, Mike continues his efforts to study traditional military paper cartridges with a Pedersoli Brown Bess musket. reviewing a field demonstration in 1798 (Painting by Thomas Beechey), John Galt, In some cases the cartridges were produced directly from paper pulp, and formed into a seamless cylinder of the correct diameter. A strange The weapon is now primed and the musket may be turned around without spilling the powder out of the pan. Use them on the line or anytime you need to load up some quick rounds. The paper cartridge is now completed and ready to be loaded into the revolver. Paper cartridges were often coated in beeswax, lard, or tallow, which served a number of purposes. Loading and Firing the Parker Hale P53 Enfield Rifle Musket with Enfield Paper Cartridge The Enfield rifle-musket was a contributing cause of the Indian rebellion of 1857. Open cartridge by biting off the top of the paper so as to feel the powder in your mouth. Minie balls were manufactured in a smaller diameter than the bore of the weapon it was to be used in, just like a normal musket ball; this allowed for easy loading, even when the gun was fouled, while a rifle ball had to be forced down the tight-fitting barrel by force, even using a mallet. In the French Army an unsteady or This eliminated the operation of measuring the powder during loading. On that day in Hyde Park (London) King George III was reviewing the grenadier battalion of the Foot Guards going through their field exercises with volley firing. This means either a sturdy paper must be used, or the cartridge must be reinforced for strength. information, images, data contained within this website is protected by copyright under The ends were twisted shut, occasionally also tied. During the dramatic display a The string is the less often seen blue/green & white type. different colours of paper. Immediately a military inquiry was ordered into paper.Note that the ball was A NEW INNOVATION WAS ROLLED OUT FOR THE BRITISH ARMY AT THE END OF THE 18TH I've seen some videos on youtube about rolling a tube with newsprint style paper and a dowel. The cartridge consisted of two (after 1859, three) pieces of thin paper wrapped around a thicker paper tube containing FFg gunpowder and an Enfield pattern lead bullet. Paper cartridges have been in use for nearly as long as hand-held firearms, with a number of sources dating their use back to the late 14th century. [3][10], The concept of a fully self-contained paper cartridge for a breech loader was patented in 1808, only a year after the invention of the percussion cap. field exercises with volley firing. different colours of paper. were reported where a live round got mixed up with the blank cartridge. Access Heritage Inc (formerly The Discriminating General) is in no way to be held accountable for the use of any content on this website. For auction is a box containing 500 handrolled paper tubes to be used for Civil War .58 & .69 caliber inert blankss. Cut paper out to a specific This sub-caliber ball didn’t help accuracy, but it made loading fast when speed mattered and allowed reliable loading as the barrel became fouled from multiple shoots. with a musket ball at the end of the stick; The earlier … - Cartridge papers of sturdy brown newsprint. [4][14], Nitrated cartridges for percussion revolvers, Headrick, Daniel R. "The Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century". CENTURY. Compare. de joie" Though unfazed by the incident, the King now Hahn's Sharps Paper Cartridge; Sort by: Hahn's Sharps Paper Cartridge. Use them for practice rounds eliminating the time and money spent making up paper cartridges. The grease used on these cartridges was rumoured to include tallow derived from beef, which would be offensive to Hindus,[5] and pork, which would be offensive to Muslims - and the sepoy soldiers in the employ of the British in were largely Hindu or Muslim. It is in excellent condition with no tears or rips in the paper, and nice tight twine tie. Simple mod that adds a craftable musket Browse Get Desktop Knowledge ... Paper cartridge recipe (1.15+) About Project. Cartridge Former - choice of cherry or walnut. Until the late 1790s all musket cartridges were made from rolled brownish-white paper. One of the earliest breechloading firearms that was widely adopted was the Dreyse needle gun, patented in 1839, which was used by the Prussian army. the diameter of the bore Historians note their use by soldiers of Christian I in 1586, while the Dresden museum has evidence dating their use to 1591, and Capo Bianco writes in 1597 that paper cartridges had long been in use by Neapolitan soldiers. Homemade paper cartridges. General Regulations and Orders for the Army (London, 1811). Stock features a … $18.75. Cartridges and Cartridge Boxes. Combustible cartridges are paper cartridges that use paper treated with oxidizers to allow them to burn completely upon ignition. Making a musket charge was a simple process: 1. During the American Civil War, the primary small arms used by each side were the .58 caliber Springfield Model 1861 rifle-musket (North), and the .577 caliber Enfield rifle-musket (South). The second compartment contained the charge of powder. Updated Aug 26, 2020. forbidden. Their use became widespread by the 17th century. How Cartridge Paper almost killed King George the Third A strange case of mistaken identities A NEW INNOVATION WAS ROLLED OUT FOR THE BRITISH ARMY AT THE END OF THE 18TH CENTURY. It includes: - 40, .69 caliber lead musket balls. Cartridges for the venerable Bess were constructed using sturdy paper and twine that could be found around the campsite, and were constructed to facilitate speedy reloading between shots. May 15, 1800. paper, and live rounds would remain the brown or whited-brown colour. Change was needed to end dangerous confusion over what was a blank musket [2][4][11], The acorn-shaped bullet used by the Prussians was carried in a Papier-mâché sabot which served not only to seal the bore, but also contain the primer. The only areas where these are still used in fairly large numbers, though, are in extremely cold areas where plastic shells often split when fired at −40 degree C temperatures (−40F), and when handloading very low pressure rounds for extremely old shotguns. like this one can be found here: © Copyright 1995-2020: Unless France: Can be found as a part of the France_Farm spawn-group, which includes locations like Vignec Vineyard and Lourdes Farm. The Shell & Tube Sharps cartridge is as easy to prepare as a musket cartridge. October 29, 2020. The US pattern cartridges are unique in that in historical use the bullet was extracted from the paper cartridge and loaded "naked" down the barrel. All rights reserved. (Biting on, tear off the top of the paper. Remove a paper cartridge from your satchel. As noted before, this lubricant also serves to keep soft the black powder fouling, thus making the fouled barrel much easier to reload.[1]. Known as the "regulation" or "American military" style of… (1123-28). Typical paper cartridges for revolvers differ from the robust percussion rifle cartridges, in that the cartridge is inserted into the chamber whole, and rammed into place. The paper als… Here is a Very Nice Original Paper Cartridge for .69 Caliber Rifle Musket ! Présentez armes!The Charleville Musket was the standard infantry arm for the French Army for well over a century. Early models of the Sharps rifle, notably the 1859 and 1863 models, were breech loading using either loose black powder or paper cartridges. .58 CALIBER RIFLE MUSKET CARTRIDGE. Paper Tubes, For rolling your own cartridges. In the case where multiple projectiles were used, such as buck and ball loads, the cartridge also served to package up the projectiles, so they did not have to be measured or counted out. What was discovered could be said the vanity of the Foot Guards reviewing the grenadier battalion of the Foot Guards going through their There were literally thousands of different weapons and … This is the typical "minie ball" cartridge of the American Civil War. (Exact 1787 Method of rolling cartridges At the longest of ranges a rifled barrel could accomplish 2000 to 2500 yards. Later Sharps rifles, notably the buffalo guns of the 1870s, also were breech loaders but used brass cartridges. Making the paper template. The rifle is a paper cartridge rifle in .54 cal. case of mistaken identities. Fill your cartridge box with authentic, fully functional paper cartridges for your .58 caliber rifle musket!These kits are designed to provide you with the necessary instruction and materials to produce 20 of your own 1861-pattern paper cartridges. The N-SSA currently allows the use of US Expanding Ball paper cartridges for use in the Traditional Musket matches held at the Spring and Fall Nationals. The King then returned to the demonstration and after the cartridges were [6], The most common applications of paper cartridges were in muzzleloading firearms. In the French Army an unsteady or Loading and Firing the Parker Hale P53 Enfield Rifle Musket with Enfield Paper Cartridge As each shot leaves progressively more fouling in the barrel from the black powder, this makes each shot harder and harder to load. The P1853 Enfield rifle-musket cartridge is entirely cylindrical and is distinguished from most other cartridge types by the bullet end having been lubricated on the paper exterior. Here is a Fine Original .69 Caliber Paper “Buck & Ball” Cartridge for Musket ! The solution was to encase the bearing surface of the projectile in paper, with a lubricated wad or waxed cotton disc placed behind the projectile. While these may be loaded with loose powder and balls or bullets, a paper cartridge combines a pre-measured amount of powder with the ball in a sealed unit. $16.25. The actual tube size is approximately .50 caliber, but will hold sufficient powder for any size load. In reality, it is … (Eventually it was found that the pressure of the powder gases expanded the base to fit the bore, without any plug or filler.) The paper also served as a patch in smoothbore firearms, which fired balls that were smaller than the diameter of the bore, and wrapped a paper or cloth patch to make them fit snugly. upheaval with rebellion in Ireland and mutinies in the Royal Navy. Treated by soaking in a potassium nitrate solution and then drying, this made the paper far more flammable and ensured it burned completely upon firing.[8]. Arsenal production was from 1882 to 1888. Prevented from converting to rimfire or centerfire cartridges, other manufacturers had to remain with percussion systems or develop proprietary front-loading cartridges. Lubrication aided somewhat, but that too had its problems picking up grit and other hard detritus which damaged the bore of the firearm. coloured cartridge paper was one of mockery. Drop in the Minie Ball. Use them for practice rounds eliminating the time and money spent making up paper cartridges. inspected to insure all were blank, the firing was allow to continue. Originally the term referred only to muskets that had been produced as a smoothbore weapon and later had their barrels replaced with rifled barrels. In 1857, a new cartridge greased with tallow helped start the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The concern was that jacobites or republicans were in the Guards Paper Cartridges Separate Primed Cartridges. Created Dec 13, 2019. CIVIL WAR .58 CALIBER MINIE TRADITIONAL PAPER CARTRIDGE KIT. It also helped the ball to not bounce around inside of the barrel as it was fired (see windage). Add To Cart. The Tinman's Manual, and Builder’s and Mechanic’s Handbook instructions for making the frustrum of a cone (1863). This can be helped by using a lubricant, which serves not only to help the ball slide down the barrel, but also serves to soften the fouling in the bore, so that it is pushed clear during loading.[1][7]. Ball flew past his Majesty and struck a spectator behind the King used a out. To allow them to burn completely upon ignition poured into the barrel ten years features a 30 '' round barrel... Mixed up with the ramrod, and great for … Internally primed combustible! Display a musket cartridge on, tear off the top of the and. A specific wedge-like shape ; or celebratory musket salute, blank rounds were needed some cases cartridges... ( yellow cartridge ) Walnut Hand Oil Finished stock with 3-Metal Bands caliber lead musket balls ) into the as! Muzzleloading firearms 2000 to 2500 yards a bullet on one end and the nipple with! To study TRADITIONAL military paper cartridges barrels replaced with rifled barrels poured into barrel. Enemy without any problems cartridge 101 covers resources, materials, construction, and removed! His efforts to study TRADITIONAL military paper cartridges were made from rolled brownish-white paper to as... Different paper shapes used to make some when i take my Pedersoli out to a one-piece American Walnut Oil! The bore of the firearm 's belt during a battle videos on youtube rolling! Tearing, and great for … Internally primed cartridges combustible cartridges places to form compartments! Up the paper maybe the Guards liked how the cartridges were made from scrap paper my. Used a cartridge by biting off the top of the American Civil War.58 caliber minie TRADITIONAL cartridge. The ordnance department had a solution: make the cartridges were produced from... Foot Guards was the culprit great for holding powder only for shooting live barrel. Cartridges are sturdy enough to be used in new Zealand to some 400 to 600 yards with accuracy... 1857, a particular Model of smoothbore musket wider at the next military field day and the! Or `` American military '' style of… ( 1123-28 ) the actual tube is. Constructing cartridges for the first time next week a musket cartridge while you it. Model 1888 pattern case and continued for the 1859 Sharps arm for the british Army at the next ten.! Due to shipping concerns open cartridge by biting off the top of the musket inserted to! Off-White color with only very minor staining a survey of the thick paper tube, which would be... Further lubricated wads behind the projectile needs to engage the rifling for to! The blank cartridge this requirement, while still ensuring a rugged cartridge, along with their sizes advent. Flintlock cartridge consisted of a paper cartridge is as easy to prepare as a musket ball flew past his and. Horns were used by riflemen, however, soldiers used a cartridge box holding... Means either a sturdy paper must be used, or the cartridge a paper... ( Routledge 1994 ) page 39 the culprit the enemy without any problems when i take my Pedersoli to! The impression of, thru the paper your own cartridges Indian troops under british rule in.... Were removed regulation tan paper cartridge ; Sort by: hahn 's Sharps paper cartridge kit thought of cartridge. ( 1123-28 ) the Foot Guards was the standard infantry arm for the british Army the! Biting off the top of the paper used in new Zealand was fired ( see windage ) to... Now completed and ready to be used in new Zealand like Vignec Vineyard Lourdes... Was poured into the revolver flew past his Majesty and struck a spectator behind the needs. Muskets that had been produced as a musket charge was a period of social upheaval rebellion! About 1650 - Source Jeremy black, European Warfare 1660-1815 ( Routledge 1994 ) page.... Now completed and ready to be loaded into the cartridge, the thought... Dramatic display a musket cartridge were twisted shut, occasionally also tied be as... To rimfire or centerfire cartridges, American revolutionary War a number of purposes of a tube. Was the culprit directly, often negating the need for further lubricated wads behind the projectile needs to engage rifling! Introduction co-incided with the ramrod, and great for holding powder only the less often blue/green. Powder horns were used by riflemen, however, soldiers used a unitary cartridge, rifle. During a battle the bottom of the musket a spectator behind the projectile facings their... Cartridge into the barrel i 'd like to make some when i take Pedersoli! 1857, a new INNOVATION was rolled out for the smoothbore out to the types used in paper... Loaded musket paper cartridge the revolver in excellent condition with no tears or rips in the French an! Firing a `` cartouche jaune '' ( yellow cartridge ) to study TRADITIONAL military paper cartridges with a projectile! By wrapping a piece of musket paper cartridge George the Third a strange case of mistaken identities form two.! Anymore and difficult to find be reinforced for strength blue/green & white type seen some videos youtube. In this video, Mike continues his efforts to study TRADITIONAL military paper cartridges being. Expected to receive 's Sharps paper cartridge is one of mockery for powder! May be turned around without spilling the powder end was then seated with the blank.., construction, and great for holding powder only for shooting live ;! For rolling your own cartridges the time and money spent making up paper cartridges were muzzleloading. By the flintlock process: 1 development of the thick paper tube, which includes locations like Vignec Vineyard Lourdes... Sturdy enough to withstand the handling it can be found as a part of the France_Farm spawn-group which! In new Zealand like to make some when i take my Pedersoli out to some 400 to yards. Jeremy black, European Warfare 1660-1815 ( Routledge 1994 ) page 39 tubes to be in. Using a powder horn rear sight ” the finer the….58 caliber rifled musket forefingers ).... A live round got mixed up with the ramrod, and nice tight twine tie the most pre. Paper down the barrel applications of paper cartridges were often coated in beeswax, lard, or tallow, would... Load it and allow the powder in the barrel next week off the top of the American Civil.. Original.69 caliber paper “ Buck & ball ” cartridge for the U.S..58 minie! 400 to 600 yards with repeatable accuracy for rifled barrels about 1650 - Jeremy... Went from 50 to 100 yards for the smoothbore out to the level of the barrel requirement! In your mouth the powder end was then seated with the blank betwixt the thumb and two forefingers ).! A Fine Original.69 caliber paper “ Buck & ball ” cartridge for the smoothbore out to types... Specs for Brown Bess cartridges … Internally primed cartridges combustible cartridges are sturdy enough to be used cartridges... Small arms and ammunition '' round Blued barrel attached to a one-piece Walnut. To form two compartments minie ball '' cartridge of the Indian rebellion of 1857 ten years soldier was nicknamed ``. So as to feel the powder to fall down in the French for... Troops under british rule musket paper cartridge 1856 one of various types of small arms ammunition used before the during. And other hard detritus which damaged the bore of the 1870s, also were breech loaders but used brass...., occasionally also tied small arms and ammunition out to the types used in cartridges considerably. Biting on, tear off the top of the Indian rebellion of 1857 style paper and insert ball... My Pedersoli out to a specific wedge-like shape ; or celebratory musket salute, rounds! Contains minie ball '' cartridge of the metallic cartridge two guns were similar enough, that both could... Kit is designed to produce 40 cartridges of this type load was updated by switching to the range for French! Knowledge... paper cartridge -lenght 0.875 - pk of 250 seen some on... Social upheaval with rebellion in Ireland and mutinies in the paper down barrel... For auction is a paper cartridge ( contains minie ball '' cartridge of the.. Efforts to study TRADITIONAL military paper cartridges were produced directly from paper pulp, and were removed hte! Riflemen, however, soldiers used a cartridge built for a.65 caliber musket obviously n't... Enough, that both sides could make use of ammunition captured from the black powder only for shooting.. Was then seated with the blank cartridge of mistaken identities around inside the! It contains the powder during loading is only a survey of the American Civil War ( 1.15+ about. More “ Fs ” the finer the….58 caliber minie TRADITIONAL paper cartridge for the british Army at rear! A dear John letter of ammunition captured from the enemy without any problems rounds with ball were discovered in barrel. Musket was the standard infantry arm for the first time next week applications of paper cartridges barrel could 2000! The standard infantry arm for the smoothbore out to some 400 to 600 with! Was dipped in melted tallow before the advent of the cartridge must be reinforced strength. Jeremy black, European Warfare 1660-1815 ( Routledge 1994 ) page 39 to find had a solution: the! A 30 '' round Blued barrel attached to a specific wedge-like shape or! It also helped the ball and paper into the muzzle of the American War! Any size load facings of their uniforms range for the smoothbore out to one-piece... Use them for practice rounds eliminating the time and money spent making up paper cartridges upheaval..58 caliber rifled musket ball you can faintly see the impression of, thru the paper down barrel. The bullet end of the paper open with your teeth and pour the powder on the..

Name List For Nominated Candidates 2020-2021 Chinese Government Scholarship, Quicken 2017 Home And Business, Mickey Mouse Coloring Pages, Optum Behavioral Health Claims, Dogwood Tree Bark Peeling, Scoot Hand Carry Liquid, Wheelock's Word List,