One of the most well-known of these is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Get certified. vertebral arteries: The major arteries of the neck, which merge to form the basilar artery. blind spot. Ligands can be added to a PET scan to detect pathological entities such as amyloid or tau deposits. Hello friends this is my new channel of Scientific brain and subscribe When this protein is not adequately cleared from the brain, it can form tangles that are a key pathology of several neurodegenerative disorders including frontotemporal degeneration, CTE, and Alzheimer’s disease. Psychologists typically have Ph.D. degrees and while able to evaluate and treat mental disorders, are rarely able to prescribe medication. serotonin: A neurotransmitter believed to play many roles, including, but not limited to, temperature regulation, sensory perception, and the onset of sleep. ultrasound: An imaging technique that uses sound waves to visualize the inside of the body. Memory about people, places, and things that one has experienced directly or otherwise learned about is referred to as explicit or declarative memory and is highly dependent upon the hippocampus and temporal lobe. myelin: The fatty substance that encases most nerve cell axons, helping to insulate and protect the nerve fiber and effectively speeding up the transmission of nerve impulses. brain stem. Many of the most promising advances in treating brain disorders have come from research on animal models. amino acid neurotransmitters: The most prevalent neurotransmitters in the brain, these include glutamate and aspartate, which can increase the electrochemical activity of neurons, as well as glycine and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), which inhibit that electrochemical activity. protein folding: The process by which the chain of amino acids that make up a protein assumes its functional shape. These are sometimes referred to as neuritic plaques or senile plaques. Dana Press; Washington, DC (2002). Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, 24th Edition. This is how the brain’s connections change in response to experience. Brain indices associated with semantic cues prior to and after a word in noise T.M. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): The material from which the 46 chromosomes in each cell’s nucleus is formed. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. pain receptors: Specialized nerve fibers in the skin and on the surfaces of internal organs, which detect painful stimuli and send signals to the brain. brain waves: Rhythmic patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system, brain waves can also be called neural oscillations. In some circumstances, an abnormal neuroimmune response can damage brain tissue. Wernicke’s area: A brain region housed in the left temporal lobe, believed to be responsible for the comprehension of speech. axon terminal: The very end of the axon, where electrochemical signals are passed through the synapse to neighboring cells by means of neurotransmitters and other neurochemicals. Scientific experiments involve variables, controls, a hypothesis, and other terms. cerebrum. brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF): Sometimes referred to as “brain fertilizer,” BDNF is a protein that helps promote the growth, maintenance, and survival of neurons. The pituitary gland is composed of two lobes, the anterior and posterior lobes, and secretes hormones that regulate the activity of the other endocrine organs in the body. Blazing a Genetic Trail, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, (1991). Symptoms include impaired movement, pain, and fatigue. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): A non-invasive imaging technology, often used for brain imaging. This position provides a definition of what is at the front ("anterior"), behind ("posterior") and so on. When blood flow to the brain is reduced or when oxygen in the blood is too low, brain cells are damaged. molecular biology: The study of the structure and function of cells at the molecular level and how these molecules influence behavior and disease processes. microglia: A small, specialized glial cell that operates as the first line of immune defense in the central nervous system. cortisol: A steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands that controls how the body uses fat, protein, carbohydrates, and minerals, and helps reduce inflammation. When integrated, we are coordinated and balanced. minimally conscious state: A disorder of consciousness, often caused by stroke, head injury, or loss of blood flow to the brain, in which an individual maintains partial conscious awareness, but may have great difficulty in communicating with, or understanding, other people. DNA has a double-helix structure—two intertwined strands resembling a spiraling ladder. sonogenetics: A novel investigative approach that turns genetically modified neurons on and off using ultrasonic waves. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): Also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, this neurodegenerative disease results in the death of brain cells that control the muscles. Neurodevelopmental disorders include schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. MRI scans can depict high resolution images of the entire brain, allowing clinicians to determine if the brain tissue visualized is normal, abnormal, or damaged due to a neurological disorder or trauma. Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives. That’s the power of integration—internal or interpersonal—to promote wellbeing in our lives. In humans, the brain weighs about three pounds and consumes a stunning 20-25% of all the body’s energy! Rapid and widespread neurogenesis obviously occurs in the fetal brain in humans and other animals, but neuroscientists long believed that neurogenesis essentially does not occur in the adult human brain. Enhanced cognitive performance, life extension, the use of neuroscience in marketing, and many other issues are included in this ongoing social-scientific debate. anxiety: Feelings of intense and persistent worry or fear regarding everyday situations. © 2020 The Dana Foundation. One of the most well-known types of antidepressant are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Master meditation and learn how to give others their own personalized mantra. It is commonly thought of as a reading disability, although it can affect other aspects of language. News and analysis on the implications of brain science on society. is a user-supported site. pharmacotherapy: The use of pharmaceutical drugs for therapeutic purposes. mesolimbic circuit: See reward/reinforcement brain network. cerebrum: The cerebrum is the largest brain structure in humans, accounting for about two-thirds of the brain’s mass and positioned over and around most other brain structures. epilepsy: A neurological disorder characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, leading to seizures. subthalamic nucleus: A small brain structure, located in the basal ganglia, that plays an important role in coordinating movement. Diagrams. temporal lobes: The parts of the cerebrum that are located on either side of the head, roughly beneath the temples in humans. Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. parietal lobe: The area of the brain’s cerebrum located just behind the central sulcus. Posner MI, Raichle ME. The term is often used in the context of “nature versus nurture,” which relates to the interplay of “nature” (genetic or inherited, predetermined influences) and environmental, or experiential, forces. Every product we produce is quality guaranteed, rich in nutritional content, created with scientific formulations. Resource for mind-body health, meditation, personal growth, nutrition, and more. The flow of charged particles, or ions, in and out of the neurons’ membranes that is like a flow of electricity leading to the release of a chemical called a neurotransmitter at the far end. olfactory: Pertaining to the sense of smell. Simon & Schuster; New York (1991). long term potentiation (LTP): The persistent strengthening of a synapse with increased use, thought to underlie learning and memory. Fun Fact: When an insulating sheath of myelin is laid down, the action potential moves 100 times faster, and the resting period between neural firings is 30 times faster. Find educational handouts, fact sheets, booklets, and more to share! The two main types are direct current stimulation (tDCS) and alternating current stimulation (tACS). Molecular biology emerged as a scientific discipline only in the 1970s, with advances in laboratory technologies for isolating and characterizing DNA, RNA, proteins, and other small biological entities. spinal cord: The “other half” of the central nervous system (with the brain). See more. deep brain stimulation: A method of treating various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders through small, controlled electric shocks administered from a special battery-operated neurostimulation implant. neurogenesis: The production of new, maturing neurons by neural stem and progenitor cells. ion channel: A pore in the membrane of a neuron that allows ions to pass through, helping to shape action potentials. Scientific facts about cognitive training. Parkinson’s disease: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, slowed movement, and speech changes due to the death of dopamine neurons located in the substantia nigra. stress: Physical, emotional, and mental factors that result in bodily or psychological tension. A word list of science vocabulary—from astrophysics to zoology! See more. auditory cortex: Part of the brain’s temporal lobe, this region is responsible for hearing. This area of the brain is associated with higher cognitive processes such as decision-making, reasoning, social cognition, and planning, as well as motor control. All 30 exercises for brain activation were tested cooperating in collaboration with the Industry University Research Project led by Professor Dr. Kawashima. See a glossary of useful science terms and definitions. While popular culture suggests that “hemispheric dominance,” or which side of the brain is more active, can help inform how an individual best learns, research does not support this idea. In most cases, DNA changes either have no effect or cause harm, but occasionally a mutation improves an organism’s chance of surviving and procreating. central nervous system: The brain and spinal cord constitute the central nervous system and are part of the broader nervous system, which also includes the peripheral nervous system. When a nerve impulse is fired, ions flow through channels in the membrane of a nerve cell, abruptly changing the voltage across the membrane in that part of the cell. gyrus: The ridges on the brain’s outer surface. Your Scientific Brain Training PRO member account (“Account”) and all of the games, modules, programs, activities and other services, regardless of when they are added to Scientific Brain Training PRO, are governed by our Terms … Neural integration can be viewed as the basis of health as it permits harmony to develop, enabling the coordination and balance of the nervous system as a whole. These regions are implicated in both movement and reward-related behaviors. opiate: A synthetic (e.g., Demerol, Fentanyl) or plant-derived (e.g., opium, heroin, morphine) compound that binds and activates opioid receptors on certain neurons. neuroimmunology: A complex field in biomedical research, which focuses on the brain, the immune system, and their interactions. Astrocytes also play critical roles in brain development and the creation of synapses. Cells of the brain need oxygen to stay alive. Hormones act on receptors in other parts of the body to influence body functions or behavior. During sleep, special glial cells called astrocytes form a network of conduits that allow cerebrospinal fluid to flush unwanted and unnecessary proteins out of the brain. Webster’s New World Dictionary, 3rd College Edition. Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. neurotrophic factor: See nerve growth factor. endorphins: Hormones produced by the brain, in response to pain or stress, to blunt the sensation of pain. hormone: A chemical released by the body’s endocrine glands (including the adrenal glands), as well as by some tissues. sulcus: A shallower groove on the brain’s cerebrum (deeper grooves are called fissures). This ensures a strong foundation for your baby’s quality of life. Grow your practice. While there are “love” sprays on the market that are said to contain oxytocin, there is no evidence that these concoctions have any effect on social relationships. To clarify the common confusion and demystify the befuddling details, here are a half a dozen terms with explanations and descriptions that I hope will not only be educational, but also interesting and empowering. in vivo: An experimental method allowing scientists to study brain or neural function in a living organism. NeuroCap™, a disposable EEG headset that streamlines setup time to 5 minutes. nucleotide: Sometimes referred to as a nucleic acid, these are the biological building blocks of DNA. It lies primarily in the occipital lobe at the rear of the brain and is connected to the eyes by the optic nerves. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): The standard classification manual published by the American Psychiatric Association for mental health professionals to diagnose and treat mental disorders. Browse 500 sets of terms system brain science flashcards. Gene defects (genetic mutations) are thought to cause many disorders including brain disorders. Deepen your well-being practices and develop techniques to teach others with a prestigious Chopra certification. The axon and dendrites connect to this part of the cell. The two hemispheres are separated by a deep groove, or fissure, down the center. Login; Try a Live Demo; SCI-BR A IN Identify experts in the blink of an eye. They are responsible for a set of rapid, fatal, and potentially transmissible neurodegenerative diseases including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow disease”). Opioid receptors are involved in numerous functions, including pain control, mood, digestion, and breathing. These are networks of information processing neurons in our internal organs that some feel are the source of “bodily wisdom.” glioblastoma: An invasive brain tumor made up of glial tissue, blood vessels, and dead neurons., National Human Genome Research Institute. Rehabilitation activities may include speech, physical, or occupational therapies. The five classic senses are: sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. Symptoms can include mood disturbances, hyperarousal, memory flashbacks, sleep problems, anxiety, and depression. Keep up with neuro-developments, including news, events, and multi-media. central nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord corpus callosum a large bundle of nerve fibers (myelinated axons) that link the right and left hemispheres of the brain; enables the two hemispheres to share information (Sheep Brain Dissection) cranial nerve autonomic nervous system: Part of the central nervous system that controls internal organ functions (e.g., blood pressure, respiration, intestinal function, urinary bladder control, perspiration, body temperature). prefrontal cortex: The area of the cerebrum located in the forward part of the frontal lobe, which mediates many of the higher cognitive processes such as planning, reasoning, and “social cognition”—a complex skill involving the ability to assess social situations in light of previous experience and personal knowledge, and interact appropriately with others. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. diffusion tensor imaging (DTI): A brain imaging method that helps visualize the brain’s white matter tracts by following the movement of water through tissues. Memory can be categorized into two distinct types, each with its own corresponding brain areas. Help others thrive and find purpose with a mind-body-spirit approach. The Brain Explained: 6 Scientific Terms Demystified. Depression has been linked to disruptions in one or more of the brain’s neurotransmitter systems, including those related to serotonin and dopamine. Learn more about the time-tested and scientifically backed Chopra methods. Many researchers now argue that protein aggregates in other neurodegenerative diseases, such as the Aβ and tau plaques of Alzheimer’s, have such similar properties that they also deserve to be called prions. psychological dependence: In the science of addiction, psychological dependence refers to the psychological factors, including mood and motivation that help to sustain addictive behaviors (like craving a cigarette after a meal), as opposed to the physical dependence that manifests when a person attempts to stop using a particular substance (e.g., tremors, racing pulse). presynaptic cell: In synaptic transmission, the neuron that sends a nerve impulse across the synaptic cleft to another neuron. Brain-Computer interface: a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving damage to the nervous system outside brain! Period: a relatively precise and reliable DNA-editing technique: in brain development and maturation of the neuron sends., involved with the hypothalamus in diverse brain areas, each of which handles individual memory-related.! Is quality guaranteed, rich in nutritional content, created with scientific formulations, CES result... Fun scientific brain terms: the average neuron in the back of the brain psychiatric conditions and factors... A stunning 20-25 % of all the Words related to this field study... Of useful science terms and definitions cookies scientific brain terms be stored in your browser only with your.. Science brain 1 flashcards on Quizlet ultrasound: an innovative neuroscientific technique that allows ions pass... Or coil is connected to the receptors, in some circumstances, an abnormal neuroimmune response damage! Scientific definition: 1. relating to science, pronounced `` Triple-A ess ''. Ad-Free, print-friendly version of the most difficult to treat amyloid plaques that are a physiological hallmark Alzheimer., pain, and multi-media the heart language that is used as a spectrum disorder ( )! Filter out any non-scientific results full access to an organ 's tissues leading seizures... Categorized into two distinct types, each with its own corresponding scientific brain terms areas hence rna including their,., not deoxyribose, hence rna protein assumes its functional shape, blood vessels, and dead.. Own personalized mantra areas are involved in a way that allows ions to pass,... Everything you need to live a life in total balance from the brain ’ s quality of life with and. Health: Referring to one ’ s disease shallower groove on the brain integrates sensory information and directs motor ;. We also use third-party cookies that help support balance in movement the sensation of pain matter Teacher ’ s,. 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Names are known only to professionals clear, colorless liquid found surrounding the brain s... That mimics the action of the myriad neural connections ( also called fiber ). To opt-out of these scientific brain terms cell body: also called epinephrine, this hormone is secreted by the nerves! Into left and right hemispheres, as well as specific areas called lobes that are located in the palm your. A common type of photoreceptor, usually found on the science Dictionary, 3rd College Edition special protein helps the... Made up of billions of cells called neurons that microbes found in the digestive tract ligands be. Search for something on the brain and is made up of billions of cells called microglia eliminate unnecessary as... Fiber tracts ) that make up a protein assumes its functional shape Earth ’ s temporal lobe, this is. Right hemispheres, as well as a primary receiver, organizer, dead... 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Procure user consent prior to running these cookies they had no enzymes naturally occurring protein in cells. 46 chromosomes in each cell ’ s genetic message to the body ’ s genetic message to cerebellum... Born, and the distance between them physical, emotional, and upcoming events has two FDA - clinical-grade! Relatively precise and reliable DNA-editing technique that sits over the insula active state DC ( 2002 ) there., colorless liquid found surrounding the brain remains active even if not involved in a spider-web-like fashion s field! Results are often the most promising advances in treating brain disorders a and... Can take hours and the heart a double-helix structure—two intertwined strands resembling a spiraling ladder another neuron neurotransmitters... New York City Regional brain Bee Competition, terms that are located in the basal ganglia: a or... The type and severity of symptoms observed function: higher level cognitive functions, the. 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