Trees in Ontario: Including tall shrubs. Zones 5-9. You will not receive a reply. Due to the Eastern Flowering Dogwood’s naturally limited distribution in Canada, it will likely always be vulnerable to anthropogenic and natural stressors. Eastern Flowering Dogwood fruits are shiny and bright red, and attract a wide range of animals in the late summer, including American Crows, American Robins, Northern Cardinals, wild Turkeys, Squirrels, Raccoons, and White-Tailed Deer. Windham, and S.C. Redlin. 504 pp. Camp, and A. A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. Figure 1. Cynoxylon floridum, dogwood, eastern flowering dogwood, white cornel, white dogwood. The Eastern Flowering Dogwood in Ontario occurs at the northern edge of its North American range. Other common names: Eastern Flowering Dogwood Other scientific names: Cynoxylon floridum French names: Cornouiller fleuri Family: Dogwood Family (Cornaceae) Group: Dogwoods Distinctive features: Shrub; This dogwood is distinguished by its showy large white flowers that bloom in early spring. National Wetland Inventory, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, St. Petersburg, Florida. Species at Risk Act Policy and Guidelines Series. Dogwood anthracnose in eastern hardwood forests: what is known and what can be done? Flowering and Fruiting- Flowering dogwood has many crowded, small, yellowish perfect flowers, borne in terminal clusters in the spring before the leaves appear, and surrounded by four snow-white, petal-like bracts. Eastern Flowering Dogwood is also frequently reported from the successional vegetation types that follow anthropogenic modification (e.g., agriculture, roadside maintenance). 1998. The performance indicators presented below provide a way to define and measure progress toward achieving the population and distribution objectives. Under the Species at Risk Act (S.C. 2002, c.29) (SARA), the federal competent ministers are responsible for the preparation of recovery strategies for listed Extirpated, Endangered, and Threatened species and are required to report on progress within five years. Conserve existing populations, reduce the rate of decline and, if biologically and technically feasible, restore populations across its range in Canada. Environment Canada is adopting parts of the provincial recovery strategy (Part 2) and parts of the Government Response Statement (Part 3), as specified in this document. Eastern flowering dogwood is also distributed throughout the United States ranging from southern Michiganto southern Maine, and as far south to Florida and Texas. Recovery techniques exist to achieve the population and distribution objectives or can be expected to be developed within a reasonable timeframe. Recovery Strategy for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) in Canada. Eastern Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida. Species at Risk Act Policies, Overarching Policy Framework [Draft]. Photo by Sean Fox. In general, protecting the woodland habitat of this species and the ecosystems within which it is found will benefit many other species and ecosystem functions within the heavily impacted Carolinian forest. Kershaw, L. 2001. Dictionary entry overview: What does eastern flowering dogwood mean? Formerly widespread throughout the eastern United States, Eastern Flowering Dogwood is secure nationally (N5) and is secure or is not ranked in most American states where it occurs (Appendix A). National List of Plant Species that Occur in Wetlands: National Summary. The grey to grey-brown bark of the trunk is rough-textured and divided into irregular square plates. Such vegetation types include successional meadows and thickets containing young oak (Quercus spp. It is identified as critically imperilled (S1) in Kansas, Maine and Vermont (NatureServe 2010). In Ontario, the Eastern Flowering Dogwood is listed as Endangered[2] under the provincial Endangered Species Act, 2007 (ESA). I love the look of both redbud and dogwood and would like advice on which would be the best fit for my yard. Noteworthy Characteristics. The red fruits are bitter and inedible to humans, but are enjoyed by many birds and small mammals in the fall. However, the species also occurs in rich woods, and occasionally in moist or lowland sites, as long as these are not seasonally flooded (COSEWIC 2007; NHIC 2010). Ontario’s Biodiversity: Species at Risk. In addition, invasive species can increase shading at Eastern Flowering Dogwood sites, potentially increasing the severity of dogwood anthracnose fungal infections. Native to eastern U.S., from New England to central Florida.Has been called the most beautiful native tree of North America. The original draft of the federal addition was prepared by Holly Bickerton (independent consultant), co-author of the provincial recovery strategy, with input and advice from Judith Jones (Winter Spider Eco-Consulting). No need to register, buy now! May reach 40 ft. high and wide, but 20–30 ft. more common. In the spirit of cooperation of the Accord, the Government of Ontario has given permission to the Government of Canada to adopt the Recovery Strategy for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) in Ontario (Part 2) under Section 44 of the Species at Risk Act (SARA). 2000. Fruit important source of food for birds. 1998. Under SARA, critical habitat is ‘the habitat that is necessary for the survival or recovery of a listed wildlife species and that is identified as the species’ critical habitat in the recovery strategy or in an action plan for the species’. 7 Capable of existing under varying environmental conditions. 1996. Plant Disease 80: 349-358. If planted on a hospitable site and under a canopy of larger trees, the tree grows fast, sleek and slim -- but it will be less sleek and more husky when grown in … S4: Apparently Secure = Uncommon but not rare; some cause for long-term concern due to declines or other factors, S5: Secure = common, widespread and abundant, SNR: Not Ranked = state/provincial conservation status not yet assessed. Part 2 – Recovery Strategy for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) in Ontario, prepared by H. Bickerton and M. Thompson-Black for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Content (excluding the illustrations) may be used without permission, with appropriate credit to the source. #1, Walsingham, ON. Flowering Dogwood is a native understory tree in Virginia, & in fact is the State flower. It grows from extreme southwestern Maine to eastern Kansas, south to eastern Texas and Florida. 16 pp. Due to the Eastern Flowering Dogwood’s naturally limited distribution in Canada, it will likely always be vulnerable to anthropogenic and natural stressors. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making. The species is restricted to the Carolinian Zone in southwestern Ontario. It is considered a facultative[7] upland species, meaning that it usually occurs in non-wetland settings (Reed 1988). Based on the following four criteria outlined by the draft SARA Policies (Government of Canada 2009), there are unknowns regarding the feasibility of recovery of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood. Individuals of the wildlife species that are capable of reproduction are available now or in the foreseeable future to sustain the population or improve its abundance. Identification of critical habitat is not a component of the provincial recovery strategy process undertaken by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources under the ESA 2007. Forests in which Eastern Flowering Dogwood occurs are usually mid-age to mature. C. mas (European Cornel, Cornelian Cherry Dogwood): Height up 7.5 metres (25 ft). The leaves of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood are 8-15 cm long, wedge-shaped and will turn red in autumn. Photo by Sean Fox. + Appendices. deciduous forests to more mesic[8] maple (Acer spp.) The small and graceful flowering dogwood is a popular flowering ornamental of the Cornaceae family. It is estimated that less than 5% of its global range occurs in Canada; the remainder occurs in the United States. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. Environment Canada. Natural Areas Journal 18:3. Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. The relationship between fire history and an exotic fungal disease in a deciduous forest. The Minister of the Environment and the Minister responsible for the Parks Canada Agency are the competent ministers for the recovery of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood and have prepared the federal component of this recovery strategy (Part 1), as per section 37 of SARA. ISBN 978-1-100-22804-4 Catalogue no. Destruction would result if part of the critical habitat were degraded, either permanently or temporarily, such that it would not serve its function when needed by the species. Implementation of this strategy is subject to appropriations, priorities, and budgetary constraints of the participating jurisdictions and organizations. 1995-1999. As information is currently lacking on the status and genetic origin of restoration plantings in Ontario, these populations cannot be considered targets for recovery at this time. The areas described in #1 and #2 below are prescribed as the provincially regulated habitat of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood: The areas described in #1 and #2 above only apply in the following cities, counties and municipalities: the cities of Brantford, Hamilton, London and Windsor; the counties of Brant, Elgin, Essex, Haldimand, Lambton, Middlesex, Oxford and Norfolk; the Municipality of Chatham-Kent; and the regional municipalities of Halton and Niagara. A habitat regulation is a legal instrument that prescribes an area that will be protected as the habitat of the species by the Province of Ontario. COSEWIC 2007. 2 A species that lives in the wild in Ontario but is facing imminent extinction or extirpation. Madeline Austen and Lesley Dunn (Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service – Ontario), Wendy Dunford (Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service – National Capital),  Amelia Argue, Vivian Brownell, Eric Snyder and Melinda Thompson (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources), Department of National Defense staff and Parks Canada Agency staff reviewed and provided comments and advice during the development of this document. Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. Schwegman, J.E., W.E. 43°32'39.06"N, 80°12'57.78"W, College of Engineering & Physical Sciences, College of Social & Applied Human Sciences, Gordon S. Lang School of Business & Economics. [Online] Available: www.ontariotrees.com, OMNR, 2011. 3 Status definitions can be found in Appendix A. The ELC framework, used to define the vegetation types within the area surrounding the trees, provides a standardized approach to the interpretation of dynamic ecosystem boundaries. They grow up to 10 m high and 20 cm in diameter. Tiny flowers are borne in dense clusters, sometimes with … Journal of Forestry 104: 21-26. The 20 m distance represents the dripline[9] of a mature Eastern Flowering Dogwood tree. Edmonton. It has oval leaves arranged in pairs along its branches. Not located despite intensive searches of historical sites and other appropriate habitat, and virtually no likelihood that it will be rediscovered. Eastern dogwood blooms in midspring as the leaf buds are unfurling. Government of Canada. Broad Strategies and General Approaches to Meet Objectives, 5.1 Activities Likely to Result in the Destruction of Critical Habitat, 8. OMNR, 2008. Environment Canada has included an addition which completes the SARA requirements for this recovery strategy. Found in and around wet or sandy woodlands and ravines. Recovery Strategy for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) in Canada - 2014. Species that are considered facultative upland species can live in both non-wetland and wetland environments. Holzmueller, E.J., S. Jose, and M.A. All Canadians are invited to join in supporting and implementing this strategy for the benefit of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood and Canadian society as a whole. The Province of Ontario (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources) led the development of the attached recovery strategy for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Part 2) in cooperation with Environment Canada and the Parks Canada Agency. Long. Ebinger. Environment Canada, Ottawa. The government’s goal for the recovery of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood is to protect and conserve existing populations, reduce its rate of decline, and where possible, restore populations of the species across its range in southern Ontario. Download all free or royalty-free photos and vectors. Activities that are likely to result in the destruction of critical habitat include, but are not limited to: Activities that compact the soil and/or cause soil erosion (e.g., use of off-trail vehicles [ATVs] or heavy machinery) resulting in alteration of the biophysical conditions required for germination, establishment and growth of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood; Activities that remove the vegetation component of critical habitat, such as clear-cut forest harvesting, spraying of herbicides and conversion to other land-uses, resulting in alteration of the biophysical conditions required for survival and reproduction of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood; Activities that alter the hydrology or moisture levels of the ground (e.g., ditching or tiling to alter drainage, construction of water control structures) resulting in ground that is too wet or too dry to be suitable for establishment and growth of the Eastern Flowering Dogwood. The goal of this recovery strategy is to conserve and protect extant populations of Eastern Flowering Dogwood, to reduce its rate of decline, and where possible, to restore populations of the species across its range in southern Ontario. Flowering dogwood opens white flowers in April, usually before the leaf display, and will show off and enhance any spring landscape. comm. C. florida (Eastern Flowering Dogwood): Height up to 9 metres (30 ft) with an equal spread. The ecological risks of such management activities will be considered before they are undertaken, in order to avoid or mitigate any negative effects. Obtained from NHIC staff, December 2010. The population and distribution objectives established by Environment Canada for Eastern Flowering Dogwood are to: Due to the severity of the dogwood anthracnose fungus, the observed rates of decline and the uncertainty around how many individuals/populations currently exist of Eastern Flowering Dogwood in Canada and the United States, it is considered inappropriate to set objectives pertaining to the abundanceof mature individuals in Canada. The SEA concluded that this strategy will clearly benefit the environment and will not entail significant adverse effects. Currently, no sites are known to meet the above mentioned criteria; however, critical habitat may be identified in the future at restoration plantings that meet the aforementioned criteria following long-term monitoring to determine success and level of disease tolerance. Susceptible to anthracnose and borer pests. SH: Historical / possibly extirpated = species occurred historically and there is some possibility that it may be rediscovered. Blossom is the state flower of North Carolina and Virginia. vi + 22 pp. Its presence in the state or province has not have been verified in the past 20 or more years. It may also occur in mixed (deciduous-coniferous) forests containing coniferous species including White Pine (Pinus strobus) and Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). University of Guelph Arboretum Environment Canada. Version 7.1. Plant Disease 80:310-312. However, areas where Eastern Flowering Dogwood trees have been planted for the purposes of  population restoration will be considered targets for recovery in the future if i) the trees were cultivated for purposes of disease resistance and ii) derived from plants native to Ontario or any state of the United States of America with which Ontario shares a border. The species is restricted to the Carolinian Zone in southwestern Ontario. Destruction may result from a single activity, multiple activities at one point in time, or the cumulative effects of one or more activities over time (Government of Canada 2009). This has garnered the COSEWIC classification of nationally endangered. Lone Pine Publishing. 2006. Effects on the Environment and Other Species, Appendix A: Subnational Conservation Ranks of Eastern Flowering Dogwood in the United States, NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life. Part 2 - Recovery Strategy for Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) in Ontario, prepared by H. Bickerton and M. Thompson-Black for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Part 3 – Eastern Flowering Dogwood: Ontario Government Response Statement, prepared by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Également disponible en français sous le titre, « Programme de rétablissement du cornouiller fleuri (, Part 1 – Federal Addition to the Recovery Strategy for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood (, Part 2 – Recovery Strategy for the Eastern Flowering Dogwood (, Additions and Modifications to the Adopted Document, 3. Ecological Applications 17: 869-881. Celestial Dogwood (Cornus x ‘Rutdan') - The white bracts overlap and have a green tinge, although they become pure white after a few days. 6 Terrestrial area means an area where the water table is rarely or briefly above the substrate surface, and where hydric soils have not developed. Graham, W.T. It is native from Maine to southern Ontario to Illinois to Kansas south to Florida, Texas and Mexico. 2009. The species is at the northern edge of its North American range in Ontario and is restricted to the Carolinian Zone of southern Ontario. The Eastern Flowering Dogwood is a small tree with a layered branching pattern and simple, opposite leaves. SARA section 44 allows the federal Minister to adopt all or part of an existing plan for the species if it meets the requirements under SARA for content (sub-sections 41(1) or (2)). I have a space in my backyard where I want to put in a semi-upright flowering tree. Cornus Rainbow is a gorgeous variegated dogwood with stunning autumn colour creating a bonus to the lovely spring white flowers. Soil: Dogwoods do best in moist, well-drained, slightly acidic soil that contains organic matter. Flowering dogwood, by the way, is native only to eastern North America and does not occur in the Old World except where it has been planted as an ornamental. 240 pp, Muma, W. 2011. SX: Presumed Extirpated. arbor@uoguelph.ca  Eastern Flowering Dogwood also exists in the area. This rare and striking native Dogwood species is a favourite ornamental species, and is a real treat to find flowering in sunny woodland patches in early spring. Eastern Flowering Dogwood is frequently grown in horticultural settings as an ornamental tree throughout its range in southwestern Ontario. At many Canadian sites, Eastern Flowering Dogwood occurs in dry, open woodlands, often on sandy soils, and it has also been documented within Black Oak (uercus velutina) savannah (NHIC 2010). Dark green leaves, 3 to 6 inches long, turn an attractive red in fall. Element Occurrence and Observation data for Eastern Flowering Dogwood. 2014. The Government Response Statement is the Ontario Government’s policy response to the recovery strategy and summarizes the prioritized actions that the Ontario Government intends to take. 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