Workers should be involved in the hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control processes. However, even if no dust cloud is visible, there may still be dangerous concentrations of dust present with a particle size invisible to the naked eye under normal lighting conditions. Prevention and control measures should not be applied in an ad hoc manner, but integrated into comprehensive, well-managed and sustainable programmes at the workplace level, involving management, workers, production and occupational health professionals. Work processes likely to generate dust include the following: This document is concerned with preventing disease. As in the workplace, the first priority is to prevent the generation of … Examples of hazardous dusts in the workplace include: Asbestos is a mineral fibre, which is particularly dangerous, and is found, for example, in maintenance and demolition of buildings where it had been used as insulation material. Year after year, both in developed and in developing countries, overexposure to dusts causes disease, temporary and permanent disabilities and deaths. 5. (Of course, elimination of the hazardous substances prevents all these problems.) Prevention and control systems should be designed to protect both workers’ health and the general environment. Whether or not an airborne particle is inhaled depends on its aerodynamic diameter, the velocity of the surrounding air, and the persons’ breathing rate. As part of managing the health and safety of your business, you must control the risks in your workplace. Environmental consequences include the effect of fine particles on atmospheric visibility, damage to buildings, effects on vegetation and animals, and health effects on people outside the plant. Damp materials are less likely to release airborne dust, but of course this does not apply if they dry up later. The processes described in this section will help employers prevent and control hazards identified in the previous section. There sho… Particles with an aerodynamic diameter > 10 µm are very unlikely to reach the gas-exchange region of the lung, but below that size, the proportion reaching the gas exchange region increases down to about 2 m. Gloves and other skin protection are necessary if the dust may pose a hazard through skin absorption or ingestion, or can have a direct effect on the skin. Controlling the risks. The advice from competent professionals, preferably occupational hygienists, should be sought; this is indispensable whenever dealing with complicated situations, or with hazardous substances. Of course, dust is only one among the many workplace hazards, which include other aerosols (such as fumes and mists), gases and vapours, physical and biological agents, as well as ergonomic factors and psychosocial stresses. As in the workplace, the first priority is to prevent the generation of airborne dust, and, if generation cannot be prevented, then secondly, its removal. Whenever exposure to airborne dust needs to be quantitatively evaluated, instruments must be used which select the right size range for the hazard concerned. Sampling for exposure assessment is usually carried out by means of a personal sampler, attached to the worker, and which consists of a pump (air mover) and a sampling head located in the worker’s breathing zone. This is the case, for example, of certain systemic poisons such as lead. any process using abrasive blasting, such removal of paint and rust, cleaning of buildings and small objects, and etching of glass (N.B., use of sand for these processes is often unnecessary, and if uncontrolled can cause serious health impairment, and even fatalities, among the operators, even in a few months); handling of powdered chemicals in the chemical, pesticide, rubber manufacturing and pharmaceutical industries; agricultural work involving exposure to soil, intensive animal husbandry, dry vegetable products, or agro-chemicals; food processing, especially where flour is used; any process involving weighing, bagging, bag-emptying or dry transport of powdered or friable materials. “Plan out” the exposure, by not using hazardous substances, or using them in such a way that no one is exposed; If (1) does not completely prevent exposure, then prevent or minimize emission of the substances to the air; If it is not possible to prevent exposure by any other method, then give personal protective equipment, including respiratory protective equipment (RPE), to the workers and other persons, as needed. Containment consists in placing a physical barrier between the substance and people, for example putting a process inside a box. Another problem is that PPE is fallible, and may not give the protection assumed; moreover, it offers no environmental protection. Overall, the goal of hazard identification is to find and record possible hazards that may be present in your workplace. A production process can be changed by applying a production method which generates less dust. You may find that, in other discussions of hazard control, the terms are used somewhat differently. A wealth of information exists to help employers investigate options for controlling identified hazards. Therefore handling methods for bulk materials, such as filling and emptying bags or transferring materials from one place to another, may constitute appreciable dust sources. A respirator, particularly of the mask type, is not easy to wear for long periods; it can be very uncomfortable, especially in hot or cramped conditions, and workers may be tempted to remove it. Static electricity can also pose hazards. For example, if a workstation causes ergonomic problems for employees, removing t… Once a hazard is recognized, it is necessary to control it to ensure that the health and safety of employees is protected. A fire prevention strategy and a fire risk assessment should include detail and a full consideration of all of the issues - including issues arising from heat, oxygen and fuel. In occupational hygiene, particle size is usually described in terms of the aerodynamic diameter, which is a measure of the particle’s aerodynamic properties. In most companies, an effective management is in place that establishes a protocol to actively control hazards through timely identification and by adopting useful correction methods. There are particles which do not dissolve, but cause local reactions leading to disease; in this instance, the site of deposition makes a difference. Risk must be managed just like any other business function. For example, substances might be used as pellets or in liquid suspension, rather than as powders, or, brought in as pre-formed blocks, rather than being cut in the workplace. Prevention and control systems should be designed to protect both workers’ health and the general environment. Measures that minimize waste generation should be given priority, and any inevitable waste disposal should be so planned as to avoid environmental damage. This can occur with vegetable and organic materials, as well as with metal and other oxidizable dusts. Where workers are represented by a Health and Safety Representative (HSR), this HSR must be involved in the consultation process. This document has, therefore, been produced to aid dust control and the reduction of disease. Hazard Prevention and Control Controlling Exposure - The Hierarchy of Controls. Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes gloves, Nomex clothing, overalls, Tyvek suits, respirators, hard hats, safety glasses, high-visibility clothing, and safety footwear. A hazardous substance may be eliminated by changing the process so that the substance is no longer needed, or by using a less hazardous substance as a substitute. 7 For most of the chemical hazards for which NIOSH made classifications (Tables 8-2 and 8-3), 8 the specific … Areas where there is a need for the use of PPE or other precautions should be clearly indicated by warning signs. We have learned to control most of them, sometimes instinctively, sometimes intentionally. Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-2019), Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-19) », Hazard prevention and control in the work environment: Airborne dust. To do this you need to think about what might cause harm to people and decide whether you are taking reasonable steps to prevent that harm. All these adverse consequences, which are economically costly to employers and to society, are preventable through measures which have been known for a long time, and which are often of low cost. These controls account for a method to eliminate hazards, ensure unadulterated food and follow a process for correction if a contamination is discovered. The design of the ductwork must take into account the need for cleaning (which may involve exposure of the cleaning staff) and the abrasive effect of dust. In breaking and drilling, it is much more effective to keep the substance wet at the point of dust generation than to try to capture already airborne dust by spraying it. Maintenance and cleaning procedures should be examined, to ensure that they are effective and do not give rise to excessive exposure. The walk-through survey will not usually include detailed measurement, although directreading instruments may be used to gain a rough picture of the risks present. Prevention and control measures Hazards and risks to workers’ safety and health should be identified and assessed on an ongoing basis. These measurements may rely on fast-response direct-reading instruments, but simpler qualitative means such as forward light scattering (dust lamp) techniques to illuminate the dust, or smoke tubes to trace air movement, may be all that is needed. Frayed electrical cords, unguarded machinery, exposed moving parts, vibrations, and working from ladders, scaffolding, or heights. The position of workers and the organization of their tasks should be appraised in view of the location and nature of the dust sources. Any airborne flammable dust in sufficient concentrations can explode. Sampling heads should be designed to collect either the inhalable or respirable fraction of the airborne dust. exhaust ventilation or wet methods). Once the hazards involved in the handling and use of chemicals are identified, the next stage is to put control measures in place. A management system should ensure that the necessary information is passed on to all who may be potentially exposed. The best part is that on recognizing hazards and potential hazards properly, the correct hazard prevention, decontamination and control programs can be designed. It must also include a record of how results, obtained from procedures and schedules set up to implement the control measures, will be kept. This document does not deal specifically with other aerosols (such as fumes and mists), with very fine particles resulting from chemical reactions in the air, or with air pollution outside the workplace. However, in many cases similar principles of control apply to these as to dusts. Control of exposure to dusts, alongside other health and safety measures and environmental protection, should be a key priority of the top level management, and workers should continually be made aware that this is a management priority. Quantitative evaluations of airborne dust may be performed for a number of reasons, for example: to assess workers’ exposure in relation to an adopted standard, to determine the need for control measures or to assess the effectiveness of control strategies. It is easy to accidentally arrange a system so that very little air is exhausted from one or more of the openings, or to badly design a ductwork system so that it has an unnecessarily high resistance to flow. If dust clouds are seen in the air, it is almost certain that dust of potentially hazardous sizes is present. It is, of course, necessary to assess all of the effects of the change, taking into account other hazards such as noise, and any effects on the performance of the product, particularly effects on its safety. It is very important that such equipment be selected by trained personnel, taking into account the type of hazardous materials it should protect from, the nature of the work, the expected exposure, and the facial characteristics of the wearers; proper fit is of paramount importance. Communicate the hazard assessments and required controls … Under section 61D(d) of the Public Health Act 20055, a water risk management plan6 (WRMP) must state the control measures to be implemented for the risks identified in the risk assessment7. Typically, there are different types of prevention and recovery controls, human behavior, mechanical equipment, technology etc. The manner in which a worker performs a task can appreciably affect exposure, so it is important to train workers in good work practices. As a matter of social justice, human suffering related to work is unacceptable. 4. Selecting an appropriate control is not always easy. Airborne contaminants can occur in the gaseous form (gases and vapours) or as aerosols, which include airborne dusts, sprays, mists, smokes and fumes. Implement the controls for each hazard. The order of priority should be to: It is essential to adequately plan for supervision and maintenance, in order to ensure that controls are used and continue to be effective. Moreover, uncontrolled airborne dust may spread and affect people who are distant from the task, so it is better to prevent the occurrence of dust exposure in the first place. Obvious and avoidable risks can be dealt with immediately, and schemes exist for using basic substance and use information to decide what controls are appropriate. The amount, hence the airborne concentration, is likely to depend on the energy put into the process. For example, if silica is present, it is necessary to measure the respirable fraction of the airborne dust. The legislation also requires that where several PCBUs have duties for a health and safety matter, these PCBUs must consult, cooperate and … Video recording of tasks, with simultaneous measurement of airborne concentrations, can be a useful tool for designing and training in adequate work practices. Mineral dusts are generated from parent rocks by any breaking down process, and vegetable dusts are produced by any dry treatment. If a particle is soluble, it may dissolve wherever it deposits, and its components may then reach the blood stream and other organs and cause disease. everything that is likely to be inhaled, or the respirable fraction, i.e. The hierarchy of controls should be followed. In general terms, control banding (CB) is a qualitative or semi-quantitative risk assessment and management approach used to determine prevention and control measures based on the so-called “band” of hazards and exposures. Hazard Prevention and Control in the Work Environment: Airborne Dust WHO/SDE/OEH/99.14 1 Chapter 1 - Dust: Definitions and Concepts Airborne contaminants occur in the gaseous form (gases and vapours) or as aerosols. Physical hazards. Research and application of hazard theory System safety theory holds that, in the system life cycle, system safety engineering and system safety management method should be applied to identify the hazards … Sometimes referred to as a pyramid, the hierarchy of hazard controls has four levels. OSHA has recently updated the Guidelines for Safety and Health Programs it first released 30 years ago, to reflect changes in the economy, workplaces, and evolving safety and health issues. the manner in which containers are handled and lids removed; the care taken in transferring dusty materials; the way in which empty containers are handled. Hazard management in mining is fundamental to the safe operation of a mine.Despite a higher than average percentage of workers in the mining sector undertaking formal occupational health and safety training and applying critical risk management practices, the industry still records the second-highest relative workplace fatality rate in the nation. eliminated, reduced, or otherwise managed) until it has been identified. PPE is the least effective means of controlling hazards because of the high potential for damage to render PPE ineffective. Contains Non-binding Recommendations Draft-Not for Implementation. It often involves doing a risk assessment to evaluate and prioritize the hazards and risks. How particles then proceed through the respiratory tract to the different regions of the lungs, and where they are likely to deposit, depend on the particle aerodynamic diameter, the airway dimensions and the breathing pattern. Laundering of clothing contaminated with toxic materials should be done safely, under controlled conditions, never in the homes of workers. When dealing with toxic contaminants, air cleaning devices must be incorporated in ventilation systems, in order to prevent their discharge to the outside environment, and also to prevent re-circulation to the workplace. These recommended practices recognize that finding and fixing hazards before they cause injury or illness is a far more effective approach. Incentives should reward work practices which minimize exposure. The main goal of safety and health programs is to prevent workplace injuries, illnesses, and deaths, as well as the suffering and financial hardship these events can cause for workers, their families, and employers. Moreover, appreciable financial losses result from the burden of occupational and work related diseases on national health and social security systems, as well as from their negative influence on production and quality of products. Preventive measures should include both process controls and sanitation controls. Security consultants, insurance agents, and eldercare advisors … In certain cases, general ventilation can be used to control widely disseminated low toxicity contaminants. Using the Hierarchy of Risk Control for Hazard Prevention and Control. Moreover, it is necessary to prevent subsequent drying out of dusty material, eventual slipping hazards due to wet surfaces, electrical hazards, and heat stress from the increased humidity. This is useful to evaluate the effectiveness of control systems and also to compare different controls (e.g. There is also increasing interest in other dust-related diseases, such as cancer, asthma, allergic alveolitis and irritation, as well as a whole range of non-respiratory illnesses, which may occur at much lower exposure levels. HAZARD IDENTIFICATION TOOLS There are many standard hazard identification tools that can help to document the hazard identification and control … The idea is to begin with a basic program and simple goals and grow from there. Definitions and examplesDusts are solid particles ranging in size from below 1 µm up to around 100 µm, which may be or become airborne, depending on their origin, physical characteristics and ambient conditions. Personal care, including teeth brushing, washing hands and cleaning nails, showering and washing hair, before eating and after the work are important measures whenever there is the possibility of dust contamination. 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